To promote research in corporate responsibility, CEBC’s history of corporate responsibility project sponsors three best paper competitions – all titled the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility. The award honors a paper submitted to the annual meeting of each association for its contribution to research and understanding of the history of corporate responsibility and includes $500 and a certificate of recognition. The awards are named for Philadelphia entrepreneur Harry R. Halloran, Jr., for his business leadership and for his support of the University of St. Thomas and the center’s multi-year research project.
The center has best paper competitions with the Business History Conference (BHC) – the professional association of business historians, the Management History Division of the Academy of Management and the Social Issues in Management Division of the Academy of Management.
Information about all BHC awards can be found at the BHC website.
2015 Recipient: Owen James Hyman, Ph.D. Candidate – Mississippi State University – received the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility at the Business History Conference (BHC) held June 24-27, 2015 in Miami, FL. The award recognized his paper titled Why a West Coast Paper Company Went South: Corporate Expansion and Civil Rights in the Deep South.
2014 Recipient: Stephanie Decker, Ph.D.: – senior lecturer at Aston Business School (United Kingdom) – received the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility at the Business History Conference (BHC) held March 13-15, 2014 in Frankfurt, Germany at the Goethe-Universität Frankfurt. The award recognized her paper titled The Impact of Colonial Development Debates on the HR Policies of Imperial Business in Ghana and Nigeria, 1940-1960. You may reach Decker at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract: Colonial practices of managing labour were becoming the target of critical scrutiny by the Colonial Office and the wider public in the middle of the twentieth century. Even though the Human Relations School had yet not become as widely influential as it would be in later decades, the way conceptions of managing labour were shifting in North America and Western Europe was influential in the debates on colonial development. This was linked to the fear of greater mobilisation of workers through trade unions and Communist groups. In the British colonial empire, caught between a brief resurgence of an imperial sense of mission and its eventual decline, this led to a politicisation of labour relations in public and private businesses which shaped the emerging employment relationships in these emerging states in a variety of ways. Finally, it served de-politicise difficult issues of social development in favour of allocating entitlements that could not feasibly be extended to the working population at large. This paper presents evidence from the corporate archives of five British companies active in West Africa: two banks, two trading companies, and the largest mining firm in Ghana. It also draws on reports published by the colonial office on the issues of labour and social development. Over the time period of twenty years, a clear shift from disinterest to paternalism and further towards a more limited conception of advancing Africans within the economy is evident, and the way this developed in different sectors of the economy had a long-term effect on how employment practices developed in West Africa, which encapsulated the shift from ethnocentric towards polycentric staffing policies by Perlmutter (1969).
2013 Recipient: Stephanie Amerian – Irvine Valley College – received the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility at the Business History Conference (BHC) held March 21–23, 2013 in Columbus, Ohio. The award recognized her paper titled ‘A store is a citizen’: Civic Culture and Consumer Culture at Lord & Taylor Department Store in New York City, 1945-1959. You may reach Amerian at email@example.com.
Abstract: The trailblazing president of Lord & Taylor department store in New York City, Dorothy Shaver, summed up her belief in her store’s social responsibilities with the simple phrase, “a store is a citizen.” Shaver thereby marketed her store as a civic, as well as a cultural, institution, making it an important intersection between consumer culture and civic culture in the postwar “Consumers’ Republic.” This paper focuses on Shaver’s efforts to build civic culture through the annual Lord & Taylor American Design Awards (1937-1958). While she began the awards to promote American fashion designers, they soon reflected her far-reaching civic engagement and liberalism. Shaver used the awards to advocate for racial and religious tolerance, defend the United Nations against conservative critics, and support the arts and sciences. All the while, the American Design Awards were also a key public relations vehicle for the store. This examination of Dorothy Shaver’s civic activism as the head of her firm furthers our understanding of how business people, in addition to government officials and consumers, played important roles in linking citizenship to consumption in postwar America.
2012 Recipient: Jennifer Armiger, Ph.D. – Lecturer at the University at Albany-State University of New York – received the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility at the Business History Conference (BHC) held during March 29-31, 2012 in Philadelphia, PA. The award recognized her paper titled “What Was Good Enough in the 1960s is Not Good Enough Today”: Sex, Race and Business Opposition to Equal Opportunity Policy in 1970’s America. You may reach Armiger at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract: The restructuring of the American political economy in the 1970s, and its impact on business firms, played an important and underexamined role in impoverishing women’s claims to the equal opportunity legacy. Focusing on Western Electric, a major American manufacturer and subsidiary supplier to the Bell System, and the sex discrimination litigation brought against the company’s Kearny, NJ plant in 1973, Kyriazi v. Western Electric, this paper examines how slowing productivity, recession and a decrease in federal contracts attenuated the company’s commitment to equal opportunity measures. This attenuation unfolded just as individual employees, like Kleo Kyriazi, exerted ever-greater pressure on the company to make good on the promise of equal opportunity for women through class-action, legal cases. Jockeying from nonchalance to outright hostility to the sweeping sex discrimination claims in the Kyriazi case, Western Electric executives and managers responded in a manner far removed from the company’s leadership on fair employment practices in the 1960s, which had been primarily focused on the plight of unemployed and underemployed black males in declining urban centers. As the economy worsened, company executives and managers, seeking to stave off any threats to the sexual division of labor on which Western Electric had long depended, retrenched further into the defense of traditional hiring and employment practices for women. In the courts, this included advancing the defense that “lack of interest” and family responsibilities dictated why female laborers tended to be slotted in particular job grades. More broadly, this included the choice of an employer-side, anti-union law firm as counsel and the genderblind testimony of plant managers responsible for equal opportunity policies, who argued that they did not address women’s discrimination at the plant because their mandate was not to see sex or race. Ultimately, while the lack of interest and genderblind remaking of equal opportunity policy for women did not become fully-fledged until the 1980s, the events at the Western Electric Kearny Works and in the Kyriazi litigation reveal that it had its roots in the economic downturn, and resulting corporate opposition to the liberal state, which first took shape in the 1970s.
2011 Recipients: Recognized were scholars Ann-Kristin Bergquist from Umeå University and Kristina Söderholm from Luleå University of Technology, both from Sweden, for their study “The Making of a Green Innovation System: The Swedish Institute for Water and Air Protection and the Swedish Pulp and Paper Industry in the mid-1960s to the 1980s”.You may reach Ann-Kristin Bergquist at email@example.com and Kristina Söderholm at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract: In this paper, we address the issue of organizational networks and the diffusion of green knowledge within the Swedish pulp and paper industry (P&P) from the mid 1960s to the 1980s. During this period, the Swedish P&P underwent a period of rapid environmental improvements. Our case demonstrates that the environmental adaptation of this line of business cannot be understood from merely a corporate focus, i.e., as something accomplished by single firms or industries simply as a response to environmental regulation. By employing an innovation system approach, we find that the knowledge and technology development underpinning environmental adaptation within the Swedish P&P have involved a network of diverse actors. In this context, the semi-governmental Institute for Water and Air Protection (IVL), and its service company held important roles as intermeddlers of knowledge within the network, not the least because of IVL’s position “in between” government and industry. We suggest that one of many important challenges for future research should be to compare how different national institutional settings have shaped the formation of “green” innovation systems. This would beneficially include national features of corporate stakeholder relations, as these influence firms’ interplay with other firms as well as with other actors of the innovation system.
2010 Recipient: Robert Goldberg, a graduate student in the department of history at the University of Pennsylvania, received the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility at the Business History Conference annual meeting March 27, 2010 at the University of Georgia in Athens, GA. The award honored Goldberg’s paper titled Black Power in the Dollhouse: Shindana Toy Company and the Business of Social Change. You may reach Goldberg at email@example.com.
Abstract: In early 1968, black community activists Lou Smith and Robert Hall sat down with Mattel president Elliot Handler to discuss how the world’s largest toy company might help out Operation Bootstrap – the community development organization that Smith and Hall had founded in South Los Angeles after the 1965 Watts uprising. Six months later, with Mattel’s financial and technical assistance, Shindana Toy Division was born as Bootstrap’s new subsidiary. Over the next decade, thanks in part to a loan from Chase Capital Corporation and assistance from the PR firm Harshe-Rotman & Druck, Shindana’s line of politicized, racially coded dolls changed the face of the American toy industry by redefining what it meant to manufacture a “black” toy. From 1968, when it brought its pioneering dolls to the national market, through 1974, when it became the first black-owned firm to lease a permanent space in New York’s Toy Fair Building, Shindana institutionalized Black Power as a set of community ideals, material practices, and commercial representations. In tracing the origins and development of Shindana Toys, this paper casts fresh light on the possibilities and limitations of business as a black freedom strategy; the impact of black liberation on the making of “relevant” consumer culture for children; and the interplay between black nationalism and corporate America in an era of socially responsible business idealism. “Black Power in the Dollhouse” is part of a larger work-in-progress that explores the struggles between political activists, parents, psychologists, and toy makers over the meanings of toys and the role of children’s culture industries in American life during the turbulent 1960s and 70s.
2015 Recipient: The recipient of the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility is Nimruji Jammulamadaka at the Indian Institute of Management at Calcutta University. The award, which recognized her paper titled Exploration in Responsible Business Practice in Colonial India: Case of Bombay Textile Mills, was given at the Management History Division annual meeting held August 10, 2015 in Fairmont, Vancouver. You may reach Nimruji Jammulamadaka at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract: The paper explore the presence of responsibility or its absence in the business practices of India’s industrial past. It examines the processes of worker management, conditions of work and workplace authority relations in Bombay’s textile mills under colonial rule during the end of 1800s and early 1900s so as to decipher the notions of CSR prevalent in India during that period. This paper seeks to contribute to the literature on the history of CSR in other parts of the world.2014 Recipient: The recipient of the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility is Richard Marens, Ph.D. at California State University – Sacramento. The award, which recognized Marens’ paper titled The Price of Autonomy: The Chandlerian Firm and the Changing Face of Explicit CSR, was given at the Management History Division annual meeting held August 4, 2014 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. You may reach Richard Marens at email@example.com.
Abstract: Understanding why the American version of CSR has been more explicit than the European counterpart requires examining the divergent institutional histories of the two regions. While Matten and Moon outlined the institutional basis of Europe’s embrace of implicit CSR, they did not explain how explicit CSR first emerged and then evolved within the U.S. context. This paper aims to do both by applying Arrighi’s theory of hegmonic waves to explicate how three successive versions of explicit CSR have arose in the U.S., corresponding in turn to the rise, stabilization, and decline of American hegemonic within global capitalism. Explicit CSR first emerged with the crisis of legitimacy that arrived with the global economic triumph of the large autonomous corporation. CSR then shifted from a managerial to a pluralistic orientation in response to the crisis of political economy generated by depression and war. In the 1980s, with the crisis of global competitiveness threatening American hegemony, CSR returned to a managerial perspective, but one that put less emphasis on the treatment of domestic employees than the first version. The possible ending of American hegemony and the economic rise of China may generate a new formulation of CSR.
2013 Recipients: The recipients of the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility are Marie-Laure Djelic – Associate Dean of the Ph.D. Program and Professor at ESSEC Business School, and Joel Bothello – Ph.D. student at ESSEC Business School. The award, which recognized their paper titled Limited Liability and Moral Hazard Implications – An Alternative Reading of the Financial Crisis, was given at the Management History Division annual meeting held August 9-13, 2013 in Lake Buena Vista (Orlando), FL. You may reach Marie-Laure Djelic at firstname.lastname@example.org and Joel Bothello at email@example.com.
Abstract: The principle of limited liability is one of the defining characteristics of modern corporate capitalism. It is also, we argue in this paper, a powerful structural source of moral hazard. Engaging in a double conceptual genealogy, we investigate how the concepts of moral hazard and limited liability were created and diffused over time. We highlight two very similar but parallel paths of emergence, moral contestation and eventual institutionalization, and outline how the two notions have become connected through time, showing clear elective affinities between both concepts and their respective evolution. Going one step further, we suggest that both concepts have come to be connected through time. In the context of contemporary capitalism, limited liability has to be understood, we argue, as a powerful structural source of moral hazard. In conclusion, we propose that this structural link between limited liability and moral hazard is an important explanatory factor of the recent financial crisis and a seemingly intractable characteristic of modern corporate capitalism.
2012 Recipients: The recipients of the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility are Dr. John Humphreys (lead author) at Texas A&M University – Commerce, with collaboration from Dr. Hayek of Texas A&M – Commerce, Dr. Haden at Texas A&M University, Dr. Jacqueline Einstein at Nova Southeastern University, Dr. Jason Fertig at University of Southern Indiana, Dr. William Paczkowsk at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and Dr. David Weir at University Campus Suffolk, United Kingdom. The award was given at the Management History Division annual meeting held August 5-7, 2012 in Boston, MA. The award recognized their paper titled Entrepreneurial Stewardship and Implicit CSR: The Responsible Leadership of Lillian Shedd McMurry.
Abstract: Although interest in ethical stewardship and corporate social responsibility (CSR) is mounting, research development of these concepts is still at a nascent stage. Regrettably, current research has focused solely on macro concerns, largely ignoring the significant micro level leadership questions. In addition, the preponderance of the emerging literature in these domains has fixated on large corporations, ignoring the realities of most entrepreneurial ventures. In the smaller entrepreneurial setting, we argue that current interpretations of what constitutes ethical stewardship and socially responsible leadership should be adapted. Towards this aim, we examined the historical case of Lillian Shedd McMurry, the extraordinary entrepreneurial leader of Trumpet Records, a 1950s independent record label, to identify specific elements inherent within the role of entrepreneur as ethical steward and socially responsible leader.
2011 Recipients: Authors Randy Evans, Ph.D. – University of Tennessee (Chattanooga), Stephanie Pane-Haden, Ph.D. – Texas A&M University (Commerce), Russell Clayton, Ph.D. – University of North Carolina (Ashville) and Milorad Novicevic, Ph.D. – University of Mississippi received the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility at the Management History Division annual meeting held August 12-16, 2011 in San Antonio, TX. The award recognized their paper titled History of Management Thought about Social Responsibility.
Abstract: Purpose: The development of the social responsibility (SR) concept and related management philosophies are examined through the history-of-management-thought perspective. Design / methodology / approach: We investigate how modern SR management is genealogically linked to philosophies that management tinkers advocated in the past. A historical evolution of the SR concept is provided, together with tracing the development of stakeholder theory in its attempt to depict the relationship between stakeholder management and SR. Findings: Three management philosophies (recognition of the external environment, a need for collaboration, and a need for a shared understanding) emerge from both classical and modern management thinkers. Practical implications: Pragmatic management philosophies for navigating the intricate relationship between business and society are presented. Perceived tensions inherent in the business-society relationship are also discussed. Originality/value: The unique contribution of this study is assessing whether history was repeating itself or whether significant progress has been made in management philosophies concerning the SR of business.
2010 Recipient: Authors Chetan Chawla, Mzamo P. Mangaliso, Bradford J. Knipes, and Jeffrey Gauthier received the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility at the Management History Division annual meeting August 9, 2010 in Montreal. The award recognized their paper titled Antecedents & Implications of Uncertainty in Management: Critical Perspective in Historical Context. Authors Chawla, Mangaliso and Gautheir are from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and Knipes is from Westfield State College.
Abstract: To explain the antecedents or environmental uncertainty in management using a historical framework. Our goal of developing passion and compassion in management practice and research cannot be achieved unless a better understanding is developed of the main challenge facing researchers and practitioners – uncertainty. Findings and value: The importance of environmental uncertainty is escalating. Our historical philosophical and critical view helps scholars explain and interpret uncertainty with their own research and formulate new research questions. Understanding the epistemological assumptions underlying paradigms will better enable researchers and practitioners to face a future filled with uncertainty and equivocality.
2015 Recipients: Paul Aligica at George Mason University and Vlad Tarko at George Washington University were the recipients of the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility for their paper on Polycentric Stakeholder Analysis: Corporate Governance and CSR Under Value Heterogeneity. The Social Issues in Management Division of the Academy of Management held during August 2015 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Abstract: This paper presents a method of stakeholder analysis based on recent developments in the theory of polycentricity and co-production. A polycentric system of governance is a collection of heterogeneous decision centers acting independently, but under a common system of rules and/or norms limiting negative externalities and free riding, and the theory of co-production describes how the different stakeholders are involved in establishing these over-arching rules. We use this theory to model the interactions between different stakeholders of a corporation and the corporate management, providing a new perspective on the broad business case for corporate social responsibility (CSR). The Polycentric Stakeholder Analysis (PSA) framework accommodates stakeholders’ heterogeneity of preferences, beliefs and values, and the complex nestedness of stakeholders’ governance systems; it is realistic in capturing the imperfect rationality, limited information and potentially opportunistic behavior, while also preserving the key elements of the normative democratic ethos that drives CSR more broadly. We show how CSR managers can determine who the salient stakeholders are, without adopting unrealistic homogenizing assumptions about “hypernorms” or “integrative social contracts”, and we provide a simple public economics model, inspired by the calculus of consent, showing how to allocate CSR resources efficiently.
2012 Recipient: Jing’an Tang – Sacred Heart University was the recipient of the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility for his paper on The Micro and Macro Processes of MNE CSR Learning: A Historical View. The Social Issues in Management Division of the Academy of Management held during August 5-7, 2012 in Boston, MA.
Abstract: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become an important component on the strategic agenda of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs), yet there is only a limited understanding of how CSR has evolved over time to such strategic importance. This study explores theories of organizational learning, internationalization and institutional change and develops a process-based model to explain how MNEs learn to care about CSR. The research demonstrates how the CSR learning is internalized into corporate dominant logic during the business internationalization process. It is argued that such learning goes through a bipartite process in which the micro organizational learning mechanism builds a vehicle for CSR learning to be carried through, while the macro institutional paradigm shift provides thrust that propels the learning vehicle to run on the CSR course.
2011 Recipient: Jo Crotty, Ph.D. was the recipient of the CEBC Halloran Prize in the History of Corporate Responsibility for her paper on Corporate Social Responsibility in the Russian Federation: A Contextualised Approach. The Social Issues in Management Division of the Academy of Management held August12-13, 2011 in San Antonio, TX.
Abstract: Corporate Social Responsibility or CSR has emerged as a concept for business from within developed, western economies. Such economies are underpinned by functioning institutions, where compliance with regulation is assumed. Recently however, the capacity of this traditional CSR approach, to take account of the different economic and institutional arrangements found non-western contexts, has been challenged. It has been argued that CSR research needs to be more contextualised, and that the western interpretation and assumptions about what CSR is and how it is enacted needs to be broadened and challenged to take account of different stages of economic development. With this in mind, this paper presents a contextualised critique of CSR undertaken in the Russian Federation. Based on a qualitative study involving managers within privatized Russian firms, this paper explore the type, nature, and scope of CSR undertaken and the attendant motivation of firms to engage in CSR practice. In so doing, this paper adopts not only a ‘beyond compliance’ definition, but also seeks to contextualise the CSR experience within Russian firms by taking account of the historical and cultural antecedents of both the Soviet Union and the transition period itself. In so doing we revel that while the market is driving conventional forms of CSR within some Russian firms, the historical legacy of the both the Soviet and transition period also influences the type and nature of CSR undertaken. Such CSR challenges both the assumptions about the voluntary nature of CSR and what it means for firms to go ‘beyond compliance’.